Gospel of John

The Gospel of John – The Father and The Son

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Our journey through the Gospel of John continues a few months later where Jesus is cornered at The Feast of Dedication (Festival of Lights, or Hanukkah), in an noticeable threat, by the same religious leaders He has been castigating for years. In this passage of scripture, Christ lays claim to “The Father and the Son” are one. He echoes the metaphors of sheep and shepherd He employed after giving sight to a blind man. Jesus points out that His teachings and miracles are all consistent with predictions of the Messiah, but these men refuse to accept Him. This culminates in another attempt on Jesus’ life, which He avoids. This is the last time Jesus will publicly teach prior to His crucifixion.

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The Father and The Son, Christ, Father, God

I and the Father Are One – John 10:22-42

22 At that time the Feast of Dedication took place at Jerusalem. It was winter, 23 and Jesus was walking in the temple, in the colonnade of Solomon. 24 So the Jews gathered around him and said to him, “How long will you keep us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly.” 25 Jesus answered them, “I told you, and you do not believe. The works that I do in my Father’s name bear witness about me, 26 but you do not believe because you are not among my sheep. 27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. 28 I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. 29 My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand. 30 I and the Father are one.”

31 The Jews picked up stones again to stone him. 32 Jesus answered them, “I have shown you many good works from the Father; for which of them are you going to stone me?” 33 The Jews answered him, “It is not for a good work that we are going to stone you but for blasphemy, because you, being a man, make yourself God.” 34 Jesus answered them, “Is it not written in your Law, ‘I said, you are gods’? 35 If he called them gods to whom the word of God came—and Scripture cannot be broken— 36 do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’? 37 If I am not doing the works of my Father, then do not believe me; 38 but if I do them, even though you do not believe me, believe the works, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me and I am in the Father.” 39 Again they sought to arrest him, but he escaped from their hands.

40 He went away again across the Jordan to the place where John had been baptizing at first, and there he remained. 41 And many came to him. And they said, “John did no sign, but everything that John said about this man was true.” 42 And many believed in him there.

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Conflict with Religious Leaders

The general theme of this passage is very much the same as what Jesus discussed earlier in chapter 10. The conversation here is directly inspired by the conflict Jesus created by healing a man born blind (John 9). The hostility of Jesus’ religious critics is becoming more overt and more aggressive. In the verses that follow, they will corner Jesus in a blatantly threatening way, once again attempting to stone Him. This naked violence is one reason Jesus, prior to His arrest, ceased His public preaching and began to focus on preparing the Twelve for what was to come. This encounter marks the last time Jesus will debate these religious leaders prior to His crucifixion.

The colonnade of Solomon is a portico: a roofed outdoor hallway lined with columns. This is on the east side of the temple. The walkway itself was elevated from the surrounding land, and partly walled in. That arrangement is important to the story, given the way Jesus is approached by His critics. Because of the layout, a person walking along this portico had the temple on one side, and either a solid wall or a sheer drop on the other.

According to verse 24, Jesus is “surrounded” by religious leaders. The Greek term used is ekyklōsan, literally translates “to surround, encircle, or encompass.” It’s a term often used to describe the act of siege. In other words, hostile religious leaders are about to “corner” Jesus as He walks in the temple.

This is the ancient equivalent of a crowd of schoolyard bullies surrounding a victim, pushing them against the wall in a hallway.

This time though, the Religious Leaders came prepared – these men brought rocks, in advance, and with murderous intent. In this incident, Jesus is not simply being challenged. He’s being threatened.

The challenge laid out to Jesus here, “How long are you going to keep us in suspense? If you are the Messiah, tell us plainly.” must be read in the context that these leaders had already made up their minds – they wanted to Jesus. It is almost a dare for Jesus to repeat His prior claims. So Jesus obliges.

In my Father’s name

A recurring theme in Jesus’ conversations with His critics is that they are being unyielding. Jesus’ life and teachings align perfectly with the Scriptures these men know all too well—but they refuse to accept Him. An intent to disbelieve, not a lack of knowledge, is their problem. Others have seen Jesus’ miracles, and have properly interpreted them as signs that He is divinely empowered. The men who threaten Him now, however, have proven they’re opposed to God by crediting Jesus’ miracles to Satan (Mark 3:22).

Jesus will continue to answer in verse 26 by reiterating the first of His three shepherding-related analogies from this chapter. This puts His answer in plain terms: I already told you who I was, but you’re not going to listen.

Jesus reiterates a point he made for these men a few months prior: they don’t hear His voice because they are not His “sheep” (John 10:1–6). Like sheep, which only recognise the voice of their particular master, these men are practically deaf to the voice of God.

Jesus’ voice is God’s voice (John 10:30); if you don’t hear the voice of God, it means you’re not part of His “flock.”

Jesus makes this statement under dire circumstances. His critics have trapped Him in a corner of the temple and in typical fashion, Jesus not only responds with brave truth, He continues, as shown in the following verses 28-29, culminating in a statement that seems almost deliberately intended to enrage His critics.

All the evidence and reason in the world won’t make the slightest difference to someone committed to disbelief.

The Good Shepherd

Jesus expands on the metaphors He used earlier in this chapter. Jesus explained that those who are His are like sheep—they only respond to the voice of their own shepherd. How a person reacts to Jesus proves whether they are, or are not, part of His flock. Jesus also claims to be like the single opening in a sheep pen: “the door” which was the only means of finding rescue from danger – Salvation. He also proclaimed Himself the “Good Shepherd,” contrasts with selfish leaders like those He speaks with, and spoke of His willingness to die for the sake of those who are His (John 10:10–14). Rather than simply repeat His claims, Jesus is expounding on them.

This statement is a crucial part of our understanding of the Gospel. Jesus has already made it clear that there are only two categories of people, spiritually speaking: those who are “in,” and those who are “out.” These two groups are separated by Jesus Christ, who is “the door.” Those who belong to Christ are safe from being taken away, as a wolf might grab a sheep in the wild.

Those who are part of Jesus’ flock cannot be taken away.

I and the Father are One

Here, faced with a hostile crowd, in tight quarters, with men armed for violence, Jesus connects those dots without the slightest hint of subtlety: “I and the Father are one.” Part of the meaning of this statement is lost in translation from Greek to English. Jesus uses the neutered form of the Greek word for “one” here, implying that they are “unity.” Rather than saying that Jesus and God are the same person, Jesus is claiming that He and God are unified as one, a partial explanation of the Trinity.

Unsurprisingly, this tips the mob’s anger over the top, and they start another attempt to assassinate Jesus.

Prepared for stoning

The next verse says they “picked up stones,” the implication is not that they reached down, at that precise moment, to find rocks. This encounter is well inside the temple grounds, and nowhere near easy access to the surrounding terrain. Stones suitable for an attack like this were not simply laying around the temple within reach. In other words, these men brought the rocks with them when they first surrounded Jesus. The Greek grammar involved here is not specific about “when” the act happened, only that it happened. In short, John is saying these men “had picked up” stones, anticipating violence. Jesus has given them all they need to justify following through on their threats.

As has happened in the past, however, Jesus will put His attackers in an awkward spot by forcing them to justify their actions. Then, without much explanation at all, He will manage to escape this seemingly impossible situation.

I have shown you many good works from the Father. For which of these do you stone me?

Jesus question here is meant for effect: Jesus has already pointed out that His miracles should convince onlookers that He has divine approval (John 5:36; 10:25). Despite this, these men still object, since the signs didn’t agree with their preferred theology (John 10:33).

“Preferred theology” is largely responsible for how distorted the true Gospel message become

Though the men claim Jesus is blaspheming, and is a liar, Jesus challenges them to explain the miracles that He’s done. The mob ignores the real point of the question and simply state the obvious: a charge of blasphemy. Jesus’ response is to challenge whether they ought to be interpreting His words as blasphemy in the first place. What comes next is Jesus using ancient debate techniques—turning the tables on these masters of Old Testament law.

Lovers of Old Testament Law

The real point of Jesus’ question is that He has performed miracles—why, then, do these men insist that He’s wicked? Or blaspheming? Shouldn’t they be recognising His authority, instead? The mob responds by ignoring—or missing—the point Jesus makes. Instead, they give the shallowest view of what Jesus said: that He’s a human being insulting God by claiming to be His equal. Jesus responda with a brilliant use of their own tactics. Religious leaders of that day would often debate Scripture in much the same way as modern politicians: with an emphasis on technicalities, obscure details, and other confusing points. Jesus turns that upside down, using it as a way to further condemn their rejection of His gospel.

Jesus answered them, ‘Is it not written in your Law, ‘I have said you are ‘gods”?”. Jesus engages in an abbreviated form of debate used by the Religious leaders to prove that, even by their own standards, they’re being hypocrites. Jesus cites Psalm 82:6. A reference to the Old Testament grounds His claim in something these men claim to take seriously: the Word of God. Jesus will compare the words of the Old Testament to the claim these men now claim is blasphemous. It’s important to note that Jesus isn’t making a blanket defense of all claims related to God. Rather, He’ll once again point to all of the ways in which He fulfills the role of Messiah.

Jesus’ point is not that humans are divine, but that those who are divinely enabled to perform the will of God are, in a poetic form, referred to as “gods” in Scripture. As this retort continues, Jesus will point out that He has been proven by powerful evidence. His claim to truth is much stronger than that of anyone else. His works—His miracles—should be absolute proof that He is sent by God. As such, charges of blasphemy against Jesus in this case fall short.

Jesus also makes a point of rejecting the suggestion that the Word of God can be “broken.” By this, Jesus means that the verses He quoted could not be dismissed as an error. They could not be written off as a mistake—this is the doctrine of inerrancy, which says that Scripture is perfectly accurate in everything it intends to say. Jesus, in this moment, not only implies inerrancy, He grounds His argument in it.

Jesus adds more fuel to the fire by making a statement His critics are sure to despise: claiming co-unity with God the Father.

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Posted by Stephen Baragwanath in The Gospel of John, 0 comments

The Gospel of John – I Am The Light of the World

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Seven times in the gospel of John, Jesus makes the powerful statement beginning with the phrase “I am.” These comments echo the words of God to Moses in Exodus 3:1414 God said to Moses, “I am who I am. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I am has sent me to you.’”. There, when Moses asks who he should say has sent him to Israel, God tells Moses to tell the people “I AM WHO AM…Say this to the people of Israel: ‘I AM has sent me to you.'” This phrase implies the simplest expression of God’s nature: He just is, He must be. When Jesus uses this phrasing, He is deliberately invoking that same essence.

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Dispute Over Jesus’ Testimony

12 When Jesus spoke again to the people, he said, “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”

13 The Pharisees challenged him, “Here you are, appearing as your own witness; your testimony is not valid.”

14 Jesus answered, “Even if I testify on my own behalf, my testimony is valid, for I know where I came from and where I am going. But you have no idea where I come from or where I am going. 15 You judge by human standards; I pass judgment on no one. 16 But if I do judge, my decisions are true, because I am not alone. I stand with the Father, who sent me. 17 In your own Law it is written that the testimony of two witnesses is true. 18 I am one who testifies for myself; my other witness is the Father, who sent me.”

19 Then they asked him, “Where is your father?”

“You do not know me or my Father,” Jesus replied. “If you knew me, you would know my Father also.” 20 He spoke these words while teaching in the temple courts near the place where the offerings were put. Yet no one seized him, because his hour had not yet come.


Dispute Over Who Jesus Is

21 Once more Jesus said to them, “I am going away, and you will look for me, and you will die in your sin. Where I go, you cannot come.”

22 This made the Jews ask, “Will he kill himself? Is that why he says, ‘Where I go, you cannot come’?”

23 But he continued, “You are from below; I am from above. You are of this world; I am not of this world. 24 I told you that you would die in your sins; if you do not believe that I am he, you will indeed die in your sins.”

25 “Who are you?” they asked.

“Just what I have been telling you from the beginning,” Jesus replied. 26 “I have much to say in judgment of you. But he who sent me is trustworthy, and what I have heard from him I tell the world.”

27 They did not understand that he was telling them about his Father. 28 So Jesus said, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he and that I do nothing on my own but speak just what the Father has taught me. 29 The one who sent me is with me; he has not left me alone, for I always do what pleases him.” 30 Even as he spoke, many believed in him. John 8:12-30

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What happened?

This incident occurs during the Feast of Tabernacles in Jerusalem. Jesus uses the festival rituals as analogies for His role as the Messiah (John 7:37–3837 On the last and greatest day of the festival, Jesus stood and said in a loud voice, “Let anyone who is thirsty come to me and drink. 38 Whoever believes in me, as Scripture has said, rivers of living water will flow from within them.”). Lamps would be lit using wicks made from priestly garments as part of this major festival,. In addition, light was a powerful metaphor in Hebrew thinking.

Psalm 84:11 – For the Lord God is a sun and shield; the Lord bestows favor and honor; no good thing does he withhold from those whose walk is blameless; Malachi 4:2 – But for you who revere my name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its rays. And you will go out and frolic like well-fed calves.

“Light,” for the Jewish person, was the ultimate ideal, a representation of salvation, knowledge, and goodness. For Jesus to claim to be the “light of the world” was no small thing. In fact, it is a claim to equality with God. Even further, the Greek of this passage indicates Jesus’ claim to be “the” light, not merely “a” light. In the text’s original Greek, Christ says “Egō eimi to phos tou kosmou,” which explicitly claims He is the single, solitary source of “light.”

Escalating conflict

This statement sparks a dialogue which continues to escalate, until the Pharisees are enraged enough to attempt to kill Jesus then and there.

Earlier in His ministry, Jesus was challenged by religious leaders for proof of His claims. There, Jesus agreed that it was necessary to have evidence—a person could not simply take someone’s word when they made bold claims. In that exchange, not long after healing a man crippled for decades, Jesus offered three separate lines of evidence supporting His ministry (John 5:30–47). In that context, and for those issues, Jesus agreed that other evidence was not only available, but necessary. This is the same basic argument being made here, this time by the Pharisees.

However, the information being discussed here is not the same kind of knowledge for which Jesus offered human evidence. Those were issues such as eyewitness to miracles and the content of the Scriptures. Here, as Jesus will respond in the next verse, only one person has ever actually seen the truths being claimed, so only that person can speak of them.

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Jesus is his own witness

Some time ago, Jesus had debated with local religious leaders over His teaching and healing ministry. At that time, Jesus appealed to three separate lines of evidence to support His claims (John 5:30–47). At that moment, the topic at hand was a topic which other people had seen and witnessed. Namely, the content of the Scriptures, the occurrence of Jesus’ miracles, and the claims of other people. In the prior verse, after Jesus claimed to be “the light of the world,” the Pharisees have challenged Him with that standard of proof. Their claim is that this remark is just like Jesus’ earlier claims, and so He cannot “bear witness” about Himself.

For these statements, Jesus and Jesus alone had the authority to testify.

Here, however, Jesus takes an approach to evidence which is drastically different, but compatible with His prior remarks. In earlier debates, Jesus was discussing issues which the Pharisees had an equal access to knowledge. They could just as easily read the Scriptures, see the miracles, and hear from other people as anyone else. In this case, however, Jesus is speaking directly of things which no person on earth has first-hand knowledge of.

Judge Appropriately

Photo by Sora Shimazaki on Pexels.com

Something that I have always believed is this – judge not, unless that judgement puts a person back on the right track to Jesus.

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Contrary to popular belief, Jesus did not give a blanket command that Christians ought not judge at all. Rather, Jesus’ remarks about judgment were in the context of judging appropriately (John 7:24). Here, Jesus points out that the Pharisees are using flawed, unspiritual judgment.

He, on the other hand, is not yet executing judgment, even though He has the right and the authority to do so! At this point in His ministry, Jesus role is not to bring judgment for sin (John 3:17 – “For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him.“)—this judgment comes later, on those who reject Him and His message (John 3:18 – “Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because they have not believed in the name of God’s one and only Son.“; John 3:36 – “Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the Son will not see life, for God’s wrath remains on them”).

Jesus gives this response to the Pharisees who challenge His claim to be “the light of the world” (John 8:12 – “When Jesus spoke again to the people, he said, “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”). While issues such as miracles and Scripture are subject to human testimony (John 5:36–41), Jesus speaks of heavenly matters. On those, only He has true knowledge, so only He can speak truthfully about them. Even so, Jesus can point to two separate “persons” to support His claim: Himself and God the Father (John 5:18). The Pharisees earlier claim that Jesus’ “I AM” statement cannot be accepted, then, is missing the mark. Jesus’ unflattering remarks about these religious leaders are part of an escalating pattern in this dialogue, which will end with the Pharisees in a murderous rage.

Jesus is God

A common claim of those who reject Jesus’ divine nature is that “He never claimed to be God.” Verses such as this show that to be false. When a person claims to do what only God can do, or to know what only God can know, that is the same as claiming to be God. Jesus’ enemies know this all too well, and it’s the reason He is accused of blasphemy by those who seek to have Him killed. Jesus claims to speak with divine authority—that His judgment is identical to that of God the Father, and that He was in fact sent by God the Father.

This makes Jesus’ judgment, and His moral authority, far superior to that of the religious leaders who are opposing Him. Even by human standards, they are using the wrong kind of discernment: they are judging “by the flesh.” Jesus is not only using “right judgment” (John 7:24), He has access to judgment based in the very will of God.

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Testimony of two and himself

It is interesting that Jesus uses the phrase “your law”. Most likely, He is referring to Deuteronomy. Generally, when Jesus refers to the Old Testament, He calls it “the law” or “the Law of Moses,” or “the Scriptures.” The words used here means that Jesus is speaking of some other, non-scriptural Rabbinic law. In this conversation, the Pharisees will question Jesus’ birth (John 8:41), His sanity (John 8:48), and even try to kill Him (John 8:59). Jesus has already criticised the judgment of these opposing religious leaders (John 8:15). Later, He will claim that they do not know God (John 8:19), that they are children of the Devil (John 8:44), and that they are liars (John 8:55).

Specifically, the Pharisees have challenged Jesus claim to be “the light of the world” (John 8:12). This is quite a grand suggestion, implying that Jesus is the sole source of both salvation and spiritual wisdom. Earlier in His ministry, Jesus noted that some claims should be supported with earthly evidence, which He provided to prove His claims (John 5:30–47). Now, however, Jesus is speaking of heavenly issues, which no other person has seen or experienced. To testify about Himself, then, is perfectly legitimate. Even more so, Jesus has the testimony of a second person: God the Father (John 8:18).

Jesus is defending an inherently spiritual claim. Earlier, Jesus said He was “the light of the world” (John 8:12). This is knowledge which no other person could have—so for Jesus to testify about Himself is legitimate.

Further, those who oppose Him are using improper judgment in order to dismiss Him. Not only is it valid for Jesus to testify about something He alone has seen, He also has the support of an additional witness: God the Father. In this case, Jesus is once again pointing to the miracles He has performed as evidence that God supports His ministry (John 20:30–31). This is a key part of the gospel of John’s proof that Jesus is not only Messiah, but God incarnate. Even by the Pharisees own law and logic, miracles as proof of God’s approval should be an acceptable argument (John 3:1–2).

Of course, logic and law are not the primary goal of the Pharisees in this moment. Rather than wrangle this point, they will attempt to shift the conversation, challenging Jesus’ references to God as His father.

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Where is your Father

Jesus defends His claim to be “the light of the world” (John 8:12), Jesus claimed to have equal judgment to God, whom He called His “Father.” This was part of Jesus’ argument that, as the only man who had actually seen the heavenly things He was speaking of, it was acceptable for Him to “testify” about Himself. The miracles He performed were proof—by the Pharisees own logic (John 3:1–2)—that His mission was approved by God. In response, the Pharisees have diverted the conversation to question what Jesus means when He speaks of His “father.”

This terminology would have been both confusing and controversial for the Pharisees. They did not think of God in terms of a Father-Son-Holy Spirit trinity, and certainly did not believe that Jesus was the Son of God. The question asked here might also be a subtle dig at Jesus. One of the insults these men will throw at Him later is an allusion to His birth, hinting that His lack of an earthly father was, in fact, because He was an illegitimate child.

Jesus continues to directly castigate these critics. Jewish people, especially those highly educated in the Law of Moses, prided themselves on “knowing” God. For Jesus to claim that they do not know God is a cutting remark. Beyond that, Jesus adds to His claims of divinity. Those who know Jesus Christ know God (John 1:14), and those who reject Jesus Christ are turning away from God (John 3:36).

His hour had not yet come

The conversation between Jesus and his critics—in this case, the Pharisees—continues to escalate. Jesus is directly condemning their judgment (John 8:15) and their spirituality (John 8:19). After claiming to be “the light of the world” (John 8:12), Jesus says that these men do not know Him, nor do they know His Father.

Despite suggestions that Jesus never claimed to be God, this is part of Jesus’ consistent pattern. In this conversation, He professes to have the judgment of God (John 8:16), to have knowledge only God can know (John 8:26), and to be the sole source of spiritual truth (John 8:31–32). That controversy is not lost on Jesus’ opponents, who often attempted to have Him arrested (John 7:32). In some cases, they even became angry enough to attempt to stone Him (John 5:18). Here, as in some other cases, the Bible gives no specific reason why they are not able to take Jesus into custody. Whether by natural or supernatural intervention, or simply out of fear of the crowd, Jesus’ enemies are not yet able to silence Him.

From God’s perspective, of course, the reason Jesus is not yet being taken captive is simple: this is not yet His time. That moment will come (John 17:1), but for now, God the Father has other plans for His Son.

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These men do not know Him, nor do they know His Father

The conversation between Jesus and his critics—in this case, the Pharisees—continues to escalate. Jesus is directly condemning their judgment (John 8:15) and their spirituality (John 8:19). After claiming to be “the light of the world” (John 8:12), Jesus says that these men do not know Him, nor do they know His Father.

Despite suggestions that Jesus never claimed to be God, this is part of Jesus’ consistent pattern. In this conversation, He professes to have the judgment of God (John 8:16), to have knowledge only God can know (John 8:26), and to be the sole source of spiritual truth (John 8:31–32). That controversy is not lost on Jesus’ opponents, who often attempted to have Him arrested (John 7:32). In some cases, they even became angry enough to attempt to stone Him (John 5:18). Here, as in some other cases, the Bible gives no specific reason why they are not able to take Jesus into custody. Whether by natural or supernatural intervention, or simply out of fear of the crowd, Jesus’ enemies are not yet able to silence Him.

From God’s perspective, of course, the reason Jesus is not yet being taken captive is simple: this is not yet His time. That moment will come (John 17:1), but for now, God the Father has other plans for His Son.

Jesus specifically condemns the Pharisees and their lack of faith. Sooner or later, their time to accept Christ would end, and even though they might seek Him, they’d be damned for their sins. Later, Jesus will re-emphasize this point, telling those who reject Him that they are destined to die for their spiritual stubbornness (John 8:24).

You are from below; I am from above

Jesus not only makes grand claims about Himself, He also directly attacks the spirituality of the Pharisees, His primary critics. This conversation will continue to escalate, with Jesus making His claims more outrageous, and His attacks more pointed. The Pharisees will counter with insults and accusations of insanity, before once again attempting to have Jesus stoned for blasphemy.

Jesus has recently referred to Himself as “the light of the world,” which implies that He is the one, single source of spiritual truth. Jesus has also claimed to have been sent by God the Father (John 8:16), as evidenced by miracles. For this reason, Jesus claims to be able to speak of things which others on earth have never seen. Here, He makes a similar remark. The men attacking Him are part of the “the world,” which carries a dual meaning in Scripture. “The world” can refer to the human, fallen, sinful mindset. It can also mean this physical realm. Both descriptions apply to the men Jesus is debating, but primarily, He means that this lowly place is where these men are from—where they were born. Jesus has His home in heaven, and is not bound by the sins and errors of His detractors (Hebrews 4:15).

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One way to Salvation

One way sign with copy-space.

Once again, Jesus professes to be the one and only option for salvation. Earlier, when claiming to be “the light of the world” (John 8:12), He made the same suggestion. Then, while debating with the Pharisees, Jesus directly said that those who reject Him “will die in [their] sins” (John 8:21). Since Jesus is sent by God the father (John 8:16), comes from heaven (John 8:23), and does the will of God (John 7:28–29), those who reject Him cannot be saved (John 3:36). To turn your back on Christ is to turn your back on God Himself (John 6:29).

This is the context of Jesus’ recent comments about going where He cannot be followed. First and foremost, this means returning to heaven after His crucifixion and resurrection (John 20:17). However, it also reflects the fact that these men are running out of time to accept their Savior. At some point, they’ll realize they need to seek Christ, but it will be too late (Luke 16:19–31).

Interestingly, Jesus once again uses the “I AM” phrasing here. In the gospel of John, there are seven highlighted moments where Jesus describes Himself using this specific expression. While this is not one of those, the meaning is the same. When God stated His identity in Exodus 3:14, He referred to Himself as “I AM,” using a Hebrew phrasing implying necessary existence and absolute truth. When Jesus states in this verse that one must believe “I am he,” it’s yet another instance where He does, in fact, tell others that He is God.

Walk away…eventually

It’s important to note that, at this point, Jesus does not offer additional proof or argument. This is a useful principle for modern Christians to keep in mind: at some point, those who ask for even more proof are not being honest. Those who refuse to accept what they’ve been given won’t benefit from being given even more (Matthew 7:6). As Jesus will point out in the next verse, there is much more which could be said, but hardened hearts like theirs would make such efforts a waste of time.

All of this, sadly, is lost on the men attacking Jesus. As the next verse indicates, they simply do not understand. At the same time, Scripture makes it clear that a person’s intent comes before their ability to understand. The evidence is there, and the truth is there, but those who do not want to understand cannot understand (John 7:17). Jesus is not going to waste additional time giving proofs or evidence to those who have no interest whatsoever in truth (Matthew 7:6).

The men debating with Jesus are not interpreting His words with an understanding that He is the Promised One. Nor do they understand that Jesus is, in fact, God incarnate. Knowing this clarifies both their resistance, and some of the questions and challenges they are posing. When Jesus speaks of His “Father,” their minds jump immediately to an earthly, biological father. For them, it is confusing to hear Jesus speak of God, and then use the term “father,” in this debate.

However, simple misunderstanding is not the root cause of their disagreement. This is not unintentional ignorance—this is purposeful, stubborn refusal to see the truth. As Jesus has said before, only those who want to do the will of God can truly understand His words (John 7:17). This means, simply, that a person’s intentions are more powerful than someone else’s evidence. The Pharisees do not want to know Jesus, and that is why they cannot understand His message.

Lifted up

Jesus predicts His own death, lays claim to being the fulfillment of prophecy, equates Himself both with Messiah and God, and professes that His words and actions are those of God Himself.

In Jesus’ day, crucifixion was considered to be so vile, so brutal, and so shameful that people rarely spoke of it directly. Instead, they would use various metaphors, such as being “lifted up.” This is particularly common reference for Jesus, who often speaks of how the Messiah—Jesus Himself—must be “lifted up” in order to accomplish His mission (John 3:14; John 12:32).

The term “Son of Man” was one Jewish listeners would have immediately recognized. In Daniel, the Messianic figure is described as “one like a son of man” (Daniel 7:13–14). When Jesus uses this phrase, His audience knows precisely what He is referring to. Many of them, also, know that Jesus was fond of using this expression in reference to Himself (Matthew 8:20; Mark 8:21; Luke 12:10; John 3:13–14).

In verse 24, Jesus had used the expression “I am he” in reference to His role as the One source of salvation (John 3:16–18). This echoes the famous words of God, who identified Himself to Moses by stating “I AM WHO I AM…Say this to the people of Israel: ‘I AM has sent me to you.'” Jesus echoes this same claim often. In the gospel of John, seven such statements are given special attention, including one earlier in this very conversation (John 8:12).

Jesus also makes another comment linking His words and His teachings, to those of God the Father. In the next verse, Jesus will continue to explain how He is eternally, continually in communion and agreement with His heavenly Father.

Sent by God

A major theme of Jesus’ teaching in this debate with the Pharisees is the fact that He has been sent by God. The miracles Jesus has done, in and of themselves, should tell these critics that He is operating with the blessing of God (John 5:36). Jesus has also been consistent in professing to have God’s judgment (John 8:16), power (John 5:19), and knowledge (John 7:16). He has overtly stated His role as the one and only source of spiritual truth (John 8:12). And yet, critics such as the Pharisees reject Jesus—they fail to grasp His message (John 7:17), not because they cannot know, but because they do not want to know.

Even when human friends abandon Him, Jesus will still be with God the Father (John 16:32). This ties directly into Jesus’ constant reminders that His mission is to do the will of God (John 6:38). This makes those who reject Him all the more rightly condemned; to reject Jesus Christ is to reject God Himself (John 3:36).

Believe but not truly believe

Many, if not most, of the people listening to Jesus in this particular moment will not maintain their support for Him in the coming days. Just as some expressed a shallow sort of “belief” after Jesus fed thousands (John 6:22–25), but then turned away when they did not like His teaching (John 6:66), the people Jesus speaks to know will, for the most part, turn their backs on Him as He continues to confront Pharisaical attitudes towards God.

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Posted by Stephen Baragwanath in The Gospel of John, 1 comment

The Gospel of John – A stones throw away

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Jesus’ response to a trap sprung by the Pharisees is masterful. Though He alone has the moral authority to execute the woman for her sin, Jesus instead chooses forgiveness. This highlights a major concept of Christian ethics: just because one has the power to do something does not mean it’s the best option. All sinners are just a stones throw away.

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The adulterous woman

The story of the adulterous woman is almost certainly not original to the gospel of John; however, it is a valid example of Jesus’ life and teaching.

but Jesus went to the Mount of Olives.

At dawn he appeared again in the temple courts, where all the people gathered around him, and he sat down to teach them. The teachers of the law and the Pharisees brought in a woman caught in adultery. She was standing made her stand before the group and said to Jesus, “Teacher, this woman was caught in the act of adultery. In the Law Moses commanded us to stone such women. Now what do you say?” They were using this question as a trap, in order to have a basis for accusing him.

But Jesus bent down and started to write on the ground with his finger. [on questioning him, he himself straight up and said to them, “Let any one of you who is without sin be the first to throw a stone at her.” Again he stooped down and wrote on the ground.

At this, those who heard began to go away one at a time, the older ones first, until only Jesus was left, with the woman still standing there. 10 Jesus straightened up and asked her, “Woman, where are they? Has no one condemned you?”

11 “No one, sir,” she said.

“Then neither do I condemn you,” Jesus declared. “Go now and leave your life of sin.” John 8:1-11

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You can’t trick Jesus

In this passage, the Pharisees once again attempt to trick Jesus in order to ruin His reputation with the people. Unlike other attempts, however, this one involves both a moral dilemma and a powerful, real-life example. Jesus’ response to this trap teaches us about the importance of restraint, as well as sound judgment.

Here, the Pharisees introduce a new wrinkle: a real-life, flesh-and-blood moral dilemma, both unexpected and scandalous.

A trap laid

The verse here says the woman had been caught “in adultery,” specified in the next verse as “in the act.” Most likely, the woman had been caught, moments before being brought to Jesus, but at some time previously. One way or another, her guilt was not a matter of debate: she was absolutely, unquestionably culpable for the sin of adultery. This, however, raises a question which might well have been part of Jesus’ response. Namely, if the woman was caught “in the act,” then so was whatever man she was with—so where is the guilty man? This entire episode is an attempt by the Pharisees to show that they, not Jesus, are truly following the law. But even their trap fails that test, since they’ve only brought half of the guilty parties (Leviticus 20:10; Deuteronomy 22:22).

The act of “placing her in the midst” is part of the Pharisees’ intended drama. This is meant to be as public as possible, so that Jesus’ response can be given as much publicity as possible. Of course, that approach assumes that Jesus is about to make a serious public-relations error. As it turns out, this assumption is once again false.

So, as they bring a guilty woman into the area and throw her in the middle of the crowd, they highlight Jesus’ reputation by referring to Him as “Teacher.” This is part of their intent: to be sarcastic, to try prove to the people that Jesus is not a figure worth following.

Jesus evades the trap as always

By bringing this woman into the crowd, the Pharisees are setting a trap. The challenge being issued to Jesus is more or less the same as other paradoxes and conundrums with which Jesus was presented (Matthew 16:1; 19:3; Matthew 22:35; Luke 10:25; 11:54). If Jesus agrees to stone this woman, it would greatly damage His reputation for being a friend of sinners (Matthew 11:19). It would also, more than likely, give the Pharisees something they can accuse Him of to the Romans (John 18:31). On the other hand, if Jesus rejects the law of Moses, the Scribes and Pharisees can write Him off as a heretic and prove their accusations against Him.

It’s like the Pharisees are trying to force Jesus into a mental chess game.
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What we know is, regardless of what Jesus actually wrote in the sand, is that Jesus successfully answers this dilemma using a principle from which all Christians can learn.

This is the difference between what we can do, and what we ought to do.

The Pharisees trap this time and all previous times never succeeded. In fact, they often wound up embarrassing the critics! Here, the Pharisees attempt to use a more dramatic approach: a real-life moral dilemma.

Jesus’ critics will abandon their attack, and the prominence it is given in the story, one has to assume His writing factored heavily into their reaction.

What he wrote is less important than the impact it had

While we don’t know what Jesus wrote, we do see how He turns the hypocrisy of these Pharisees against them. They were not wrong to seek justice under the law. However, they are clearly not following it fully, since they have only brought half of the guilty ones. And, God’s law also prioritized mercy over blind punishment (Proverbs 21:10; Zechariah 7:8–9; Matthew 23:23).

Jesus’ reaction includes several layers. Here, he points out that the law also requires the accusers to begin the stoning process. Whomever caught the woman “in the act” was supposed to initiate her death. That, in and of itself, stymies any attempt to get Jesus in trouble with Rome, since the Pharisees would have to act first. Jesus’ response also highlights another problem—a woman caught “in the act” would have been caught with a man, but the Pharisees have brought no guilty man with them.

In one fell swoop, Jesus points out that the Scribes and Pharisees are not actually interested in following the law. If they were, they’d at least follow the entire law, and not merely use it as a cheap publicity stunt. A complete submission to God means more than legalism, it also means using “right judgment” (John 7:24). Jesus’ behavior after the Pharisees leave continues this contrast. The accusing men were ignoring God’s frequent calls for His people to be merciful (Proverbs 21:10; Zechariah 7:8–9; Matthew 23:23).

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Pharisees Fail

Not only do they fail to ruin Jesus’ reputation with the people, they actually make Him look even wiser, and themselves even less holy.

The phrasing here can be interpreted to mean that Jesus and the woman are literally the only two people in this area. However, the context strongly suggests that Jesus and the woman are only alone “in the midst” of the crowd, now that the Pharisees have left. In other words, once the accusers are gone, all that is left in front of the crowd are Jesus and the adulterous woman.

Jesus’ response to the adulterous woman is valuable for our understanding of judgment, mercy, and God’s perspective on sin. Christ’s question here sets up His response in the next verse. This is an instance of forgiveness, not ignorance. Jesus is not going to claim that the woman is innocent or that her sin is trivial. On the contrary, Jesus will explicitly refer to her behavior as sinful, even as He demonstrates how mercy is meant to take precedence over retribution, even under the Old Testament law (Proverbs 21:10; Zechariah 7:8–9; Matthew 23:23).

No condemnation in Christ Jesus

What happens in this verse must be taken in its full context. Jesus does not tell the woman, “you did nothing wrong.” He does not say, “don’t worry about what you did.” Instead, Jesus simply states that He does not condemn her—which in this context refers specifically to stoning her for this particular sin—and also explicitly tells her not to sin anymore. This incident is often misapplied by those who think Christians ought never to speak out against sin. The exact opposite is true: Jesus showed this woman spectacular grace, while still holding firm in calling her adultery what it was: a moral failure which should not be repeated.

This incident serves as a useful example for Christians. The adulterous woman is morally and legally guilty.

Jesus is morally and legally perfect.

No one on earth had greater justification to kill her for her sin than Jesus did in that moment. And yet, Jesus chose not to do what He was allowed to do. Instead, He chose to do what He should do, which was to exercise “right judgment” (John 7:24), to show mercy (Proverbs 21:10; Zechariah 7:8–9; Matthew 23:23), while still speaking out against sin.

Having the right to do something does not mean it’s the best option; sometimes, the right thing to do is to be softer, gentler, and more forgiving than the world.

Judge not as the world does – judge as Jesus would. Be merciful.

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Posted by Stephen Baragwanath in The Gospel of John, 1 comment